DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (PHD) IN CLIMATE CHANGE AND AGROFORESTRY

Climate change affects environment and the well-being of living things contained therein. The challenge of climate change is a global concern and discussions have been on-going with a goal of obtaining a common strategy to address impacts of climate change. A common strategic plan is believed to be the panaceae to carbon emission reductions. To counter the challenge of climate change, several strategies have been proposed and applied. Forests are the natural sinks of carbon. Further, they offer a wide range of multiple uses including ecological services such as stabilizing stream flows, reducing soil erosion, floods and avalanches. Currently, substantial number of trees is found on farms and there is need to increase this tree cover on farms. As such, agroforestry plays a critical role in mitigating the effects of climate change. Therefore, in order to effectively address climate change, skilled manpower will be necessary to ensure that proper action plan is undertaken based on research inputs and guiding principles of agroforestry.

2.0     Justification
Climate change is recognized as one of the major worldwide challenges facing man and environment and has become one of the areas of urgent concern and focus in the 21st Century. The 2010 Kenya Constitution provides for the right of all Kenyans to a clean and safe environment. Therefore, understanding the causes of climate change and its mitigation avenues will go a long way in making a clean and safe environment, and a better place to be for current and future generations. Agroforestry is one of the potential options which can be practiced to mitigate the impacts of current threats of climate change and there is therefore need to incorporate it in training on climate change mitigations. Therefore, this PhD program is purposely tailored to absorb candidates with Masters degrees in diverse and relevant disciplines with the aim of producing well trained researchers and natural resource managers in climate change and agroforestry. The school of Environment and Natural Resources Management, also, has undergraduate and MSc. students undertaking courses relevant to this program and stands to benefit from the rolling of this program at SEKU.

3.0 Objectives of the programme
The main objectives of this programme will be to:
a) Enhance capacity building of specialists in climate change and agroforestry who can identify and solve existing and emerging problems on climate change and agroforestry in the light of environmental policies.
b) Develop multidisciplinary researchers who can tackle climate change and agroforestry.
c). Develop the highest level of scholarship, research capability and creative thinking in the student’s specific areas of research interest in climate change and agroforestry.

4.0    Admission Requirements
a) The common regulations applicable to the degree of Doctor of Philosophy of the South Eastern Kenya University (SEKU) shall apply
b) To qualify for admission into the Doctor of Philosophy in Climate Change and Agroforestry
programme, a candidate shall be either a holder of:
(i) Masters degree of South Eastern Kenya University or its equivalent from a University
recognized by SEKU Senate in  forestry/agroforestry, climate change, land resources, environmental studies/sciences, natural resources management, relevant agricultural sciences, environmental engineering, law, environmental education and, geography.
(ii) Masters degree in relevant social sciences and engineering recommended by theSchool Board and approved by SEKU Senate.

4. Course Structure and Duration
The programme shall be offered through Research, Thesis and Oral examination. The common regulations affecting the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy of the South Eastern Kenya University shall apply.
a)    For the qualified applicants, a student’s provisional registration will be effected upon the submission of a dully filled application form, accompanied by a research concept note.
b)    A research topic shall be agreed upon between the student and the approved academic advisors/supervisors within six (6) months of the provisional registration. The student shall be formally registered as a PhD candidate upon a successful presentation of the research proposal
c)    Subject to approval by the School Board and the University Senate, a candidate may be required to audit certain courses considered appropriate to remedy deficiencies or weaknesses in a candidates academic background so as to equip the candidate with specific knowledge and skills necessary for successful research work
d)    The programme shall take a minimum of three (3) years and a maximum of five (5).

5. Examination Regulations
a)    The examination regulations of SEKU shall apply.
b)    Each candidate shall be required to present a minimum of two (2) seminars in the course of their research work
c)    The research project shall be examined by a written thesis and an oral presentation. The student’s thesis shall be examined by two (2) internal examiners and one (1) external examiner, followed by an oral examination at the school where the student is registered
d)    Candidates shall be required to publish at least one (1) paper before graduating
e)    A candidate who fails in the thesis shall be allowed one re-submission as per the SEKU statutes otherwise he/she shall be discontinued after a fail in the re-submission.

6. Award of Degree
A candidate who successfully completes the course shall be awarded the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy (PhD) in Climate Change and Agroforestryof South Eastern Kenya University.

MASTER OF SCIENCE IN CLIMATE CHANGE AND AGROFORESTRY

Climate change affects our socio-cultural, economic and political aspects of our lives. The challenge of climate change has brought nations in a round table on several occasions with the sole aim of coming up with a common strategic plan on how to tackle it. Currently, renewed efforts are at the top gear to find the successor of the 1970’s Kyoto Protocol. A common strategic plan is believed to be the panacea to carbon emission reductions. Further, forests, apart from stabilizing stream flow, reducing soil erosion, floods and avalanches and acts as natural sinks of carbon dioxide. Most of the trees are found on farms. As such, agroforestry can play a critical role in mitigating the effects of climate change. In order to tackle climate change challenges appropriately, skilled manpower is required to ensure that proper action plan undertaken based on research inputs and guiding principles.
The climate change component of the course provides a broad introduction into various aspects of the physical and social dimensions of climate change. The component educates students in three areas of the climate change issue: science, society, and solutions. It provides a foundation that enables students to engage in the scientific, societal and political dimensions of global climate change. The Agroforestry component of the course gives studentsthe opportunity to learn about how trees, people and agriculture can interact in sustainably managed farms, forests and landscapes. There is a long tradition of agroforestry practice in many parts of the world but recently it has become a major focus in international development and is now at the forefront of innovation in natural resource management. Further, the agroforestry component equips professionals to deal with the principal forces driving change in farming and forestry, from thinking globally about issues like climate change and carbon trading to dealing with practical issues of how to manage trees on farms and food security at a local level.

2.0    Justification
Climate Change is emerging as a critical global concern that is threatening the future existence of humanity. In the wake of 21st century, countries have realized the magnitude of the threat and efforts have been put in place to develop array of climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. However, many institutions are struggling with the concept.  To meet these challenges, there is need for professionals and policy-makers who understand the complex multisectoral, scientific, socio-economic, technological and institutional aspects of climate change. There are capacity concerns and a general lack of experts hence, challenges in conducting vulnerability assessments, developing and implementing mitigation and adaptation strategies. MSc. in Climate Change and Agroforestry aims at authoritatively equipping graduates to understand the concept of climate change, vulnerability, climate change adaptation and help them identify practical mechanisms for addressing the challenges of Climate Change in development.
Tackling challenges of climate change is a collective responsibility and if not strategically addressed, may be our under-pinning to the realization of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Governments and private sector world-wide have joined hands in an effort to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Tree planting has become the classical corporate social responsibility activity in the government and the private sectors. These sectors require tree experts not only to guide them on afforestation and re-afforestation programs but also ensure they get value for their money.
The graduates of MSc. in Climate change and Agroforestry can take up jobs in various government agencies involved in research, conservation and management of natural resources. Private companies and farmers engaged in carbon trading require experts who can appropriately quantify carbon sequestrated and sell the credits in the international carbon market. Companies involved in timber, tea, and tobacco plantations also need the services of Climate Change and Agroforestry experts. Further, the graduates can also work in private consulting firms or run their own private consultancy in research, environmental impact assessment of large environmental projects and Carbon trading.

3.0    Objectives of the Programme
The objectives of the programme are to:-
a) Train post-graduates with competent academic and professional knowledge in climate change and agroforestry.
b) Develop multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches in dealing with climate change and agroforestry.
c) Develop and apply concepts and skills for in-depth research in climate change and agroforestry.

4.0    Admission Requirements
1.    The common regulations applicable to the Masters degree of the South Eastern Kenya University (SEKU) and the School of Environment and Natural Resources Management shall apply
2.    The following shall be eligible for admission for the degree in Climate Change and Agroforestry.
a)    Holders of at least an Upper Second Class Honours degree or equivalent qualification in basic and applied sciences, forestry/agroforestry, climate change, land resources, environmental studies/sciences, natural resources management, agricultural sciences, public health, resource economics, environmental engineering, law, environmental education, geography and relevant social sciences from the South Eastern Kenya University or  an equivalent qualification from another institution recognized by the Senate
b)    Holders of Lower Second Class Honours degree in the same discipline as in 4.2 (a) from the South Eastern Kenya University or from any other University recognized by the Senate but must show proof of academic advancement either through work experience,  research and publication or postgraduate training since graduation with a Bachelors degree.
c)    Holders of a Pass degree in the same discipline as in 4.2 (a) and a relevant postgraduate diploma from a recognized University or at least five years of field experience and evidence of research publication since graduation with a Bachelors degree.

5.0    Transfer of Credits
A candidate may be exempted from some units and credit(s) transferred from recognized institutions by the Senate, subject to the following conditions:-
1.    The candidate must have passed the unit at M.Sc. level and must request for the transfer at admission with official supporting documents, to the Director, Board of Post graduate studies through the Dean, School of Environment and Natural Resources Management.
2.    The course must have covered similar content and contact hours as the one from which credit transfer is desired. Evidence of course content and contact hours shall be attached to the application.
3.    Payment of the prescribed exemption fee.
4.    Candidates may be allowed to transfer up to a third (1/3) of the total number of course units and any approved transfer shall be recorded as 50% in the student’s academic record.
5.    The department at its discretion may administer an exemption examination on behalf of the School.

6.0    Course Structure and Duration
1.    The programme lasts for a minimum of four (4) semesters and a maximum of twelve (12) semesters and offered by coursework, examination and thesis. Coursework consists of lecturers, tutorials and seminars.
2.    Students are required to take twelve (12) units of course work and a thesis. A course unit will consist of 45 contact hours while the project will be equivalent to 4 units.
3.    On successful completion of coursework, students devote the rest of the period to research in a given approved subject area and writing of thesis under supervision.
4.    Students will take a minimum of three (3) course units and a maximum of six (6) per semester of 15 weeks.

6.0    Examinations Regulations
The general regulations of the South Eastern Kenya University and the School of Environment and Natural Resources Management shall apply.
6.1 Written examinations
1.    Examination for any given course shall be taken in the semester in which the course has been offered.
2.    Each examination covering a unit of coursework will be two hours while all other coursework examinations will take three hours.
3.    Each examination shall be graded out of 100% of which 60% shall constitute written examinations while the continuous assessment tests shall constitute 40%.
4.    The pass mark in each examination shall be 50%
5.    A candidate who fails to obtain a pass mark in any course may, on recommendation of the school Board of Examiners be allowed to re-sit or retake any such failed unit on the next scheduled examination up to a maximum of two times. The candidate shall pay registration and examination fees for the course units to be retaken.
6.    A candidate who fails in more than two course examinations or fails a supplementary examination shall be recommended to repeat the course.
7.    A candidate who fails after repeating the course shall be discontinued.

6.2 Thesis examination
1.    Candidates will conduct a thesis research undertaken after successfully completing the coursework. The thesis shall be submitted within the time specified in the common Regulations for the Masters Degree in SEKU.
2.    The Board of Examiners for the thesis Examination shall consist of not less than three examiners, at least one of whom shall be an external examiner to the University.
3.    A candidate who fails to satisfy the Board of Examiners recommendations shall be discontinued.

6.3    Grading System
The grading of the courses shall be as follows:
A = 70% and above;
B = 60 – 69%;
C = 50 -59%;
D = 0 – 49% (fail)

7.0    Award of degree
The general rules and regulations governing the award of Masters degree of the South Eastern Kenya University and the School of Environment and Natural Resources Management shall apply. On successful completion, the candidate shall be awarded the degree of Master of Science in Climate Change and Agroforestry.

8.0  Programme Structure

Bachelor of Science in Forestry

Forests stabilize stream flow, reducing soil erosion, floods and avalanches and are important in the regulation of air temperature in urban and rural settings. Forests also play a critical role in maintaining a proper carbon dioxide balance in the earth’s atmosphere and are valued for their aesthetic enrichment of our lives and for the widespread opportunities for outdoor recreation they provide. Latest estimates prove that there is a significant reduction in forest cover due to increasing human population and development pressure. In order to overcome the adverse forest situation, skilled manpower is required so that a proper action plan can be made based on research inputs and guiding principles. Thus, courses in forest resources management are of immense importance, from policy and application point of view. TheB.Sc. Forestry programme prepares professionals to work in complex situations where the goals of management must be determined by present society and the actions to reach these goals must be designed for implementation over time horizons of centuries, in order that future societies will have continued enjoyment of socio-economic, cultural, environmental and aesthetic values from forest landscapes.


1.1 Justification
The Society’s consciousness for conservation of forest is growing, , so also will  career opportunities for B.Sc. Forestry graduates. The graduates can take up jobs in various government departments like the Forest Department. They can be employed in Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs)/Inter-Governmental Organizations such as United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), working in conservation of forests. Corporate bodies involved in timber plantations such as Panpaper mills, Raiply, Timsales, BAT, Mastermind Tobacco, Kenya Power and Lighting Company also need the services of Forestry graduates. The graduates can also take up research work in public sector research institutions like the Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), the International Centre for Research in Agro-forestry (ICRAF), Africa Forest Research Network (AFORNET), Forest Action Network (FAN), Kenya Forest Working Group (KFWG) National Museums of Kenya (NMK)and organizations like the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Nature Kenya. They can also be employed in Wildlife sanctuaries and National parks. They can also take up teaching jobs in many colleges offering Forestry as a subject. Other career options available to Forestrygraduates are still film making and wildlife journalism. There may also be opportunities in television channels like National Geographic. Further,the graduates can also work in private consulting firms or run their own private consultancy in environmental impact assessment of large environmental projects.

1.2 Programme objectives
a)    To train graduates who are able to plan, manage and develop forest resources for multiple benefits according to ecological and socio-economic demands.
b)    To produce graduate who are able to maintain and improve the quality of the environment through forestry.
c)    To train graduates able to carry out research and extension, and venture into entrepreneurship and self-employment.

2 ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS
The candidate must satisfy the minimum university entry requirements.

2.1 KCSE Candidates
In addition to satisfying the above University requirements, candidates should posses passes at C+ or above in Biology or Biological sciences and a minimum of a C (plain) in Chemistry and in either Mathematics or Geography or Physics/Physical sciences.

Candidates who satisfy the minimum university entry requirements but have a C-  (minus) in Biology or in Biological Sciences shall be eligible for admission after taking and passing bridging courses in these subjects offered by the South Eastern Kenya University or any other institution recognized by Senate.

2.3    Other Candidates
Admission to the degree course may also be granted to the following candidates:
(e)    Holders of KACE or equivalent with minimum 2principalpasses in Biology and Chemistry and at least a subsidiary pass in Mathematics. If Mathematics was not offered at KACE, then it is accepted at Ordinary Level but with a minimum of a credit or above.
(f)    Holders of Diploma in Forestry or related equivalent from a recognized institution with passes at credit or distinction. Candidates with a pass with two years or more relevant working experience.
(g)    Holders of a Higher National Diploma or equivalent in Forestry or Biological Sciences and other related field from a recognized institution.
(h)    Holders of a Degree in Biological Sciences or related fields from a recognized university.

3 TRANSFER OF CREDITS AND EXEMPTIONS
3.1 Credit Transfer
A candidate from a recognized university, or any other equivalent institution recognized by the South Eastern Kenya University senate, wishing to transfer to B.Sc. Forestry programme shall be allowed to transfer credits from his/her University if those credits are deemed relevant and meet the required minimum contact hours. The transfer of credits shall not be more than a third (1/3) of the total prescribed credits and/or course units required for the award of B.Sc. Forestry.

3.2 Exemptions
Senate may exempt students from some courses on recommendation of the School Board provided that:
(e)    Such candidates had taken those courses in a recognized University or equivalent institution and had achieved a pass grade.
(f)    Candidates seeking such exemptions submit a duly completed Senate approved form specifying the courses for which exemption is desired and attach evidence of 3.2 (a) above, showing contents of what was studied.
(g)    Course units recommended for exemption should not exceed 1/3 of the total units in the degree programme.
(h)    A non-refundable course exemption fee as determined by the University be paid with each application for exemption.


4 COURSE STRUCTURE AND DURATION
The programme will be offered under three modules, full time (module I and II) and through Open Distance Education Learning (ODEL) (Module III) for students who cannot attend regular university programme.
8.    Full time
4.5    The teaching period for the degree programme shall extend over a period of not less than four academic years. Each academic year shall consist of two semesters of 15 weeks of teaching and examinations.
4.6    A candidate enrolled for the degree shall satisfactorily complete the programme in a period of not more than twice the minimum period for which he/she was registered for the degree.
4.7    A candidate shall participate and complete course work and practical assignments as prescribed. Admission to the examination at the end of the semester shall be based on satisfactory completion of such requirements.
4.8    Each student shall be required to undertake satisfactory field attachment of eight (8) weeks as stipulated in the Course structure. During the field practice, students are expected to embark on a research project, which they have to complete and present at a seminar during the fourth year of study.

9.    Open Distance Learning
The delivery mode of these programmes will be use of open distance education learning modes involving the use of various media (multi-media modes of learning) and will largely be home based.


EXAMINATION REGULATIONS
The conduct of examinations shall be governed by the following regulations:
5.4    No candidate shall be permitted to take an examination unless he/she has satisfactorily attended two thirds of the prescribed course of study.
5.5    For purposes of these regulations, field practice (Attachment) shall be deemed to be part of the fourth year.
5.6    All examination procedures shall be governed by the following:
(a)     Each course examination shall be graded out of a total of 100%.The pass mark in each course examination shall be 40% and graded as follows:-
70        -    100%         =    A
60        -    69%        =    B
50        -    59%        =    C
40        -    49%        =    D
39% and below            =    FAIL
(b)     Written examination in each course shall be by a 1 x 2 hour paper and shall constitute
70%. The Continuous Assessment Tests (CATs) shall constitute the remaining 30% which
shall be divided as follows: - written CATs /term papers 20% and practical /field trip
reports 10%.
(c) Field Practice/Attachment shall be examined by oral examination and written reports.
The grades shall be used in the degree classification. Evaluation of the students’ performance while in the field shall constitute field assessment 30%, written reports 40% and oral presentations 30%.
(d)     The Research Projects shall be examined through written reports and presentations, and shall be graded to use in the degree classification. The seminars and project proposal shall constitute 30%, the special project report shall constitute 60% and the oral presentation shall constitute 10%.
(i)    A candidate who fails to attain the pass mark in five or six course units taken in any
academic year shall be required to repeat the academic year of study. Candidates who repeat the year shall sit examinations in failed courses only. Candidates shall have the option to repeat the year externally, whereby they sit CATs and final examination in the failed courses without attending classes.
(f)    A candidate whofails to attain the pass mark in seven or more of the course units taken in any year shall on recommendation of the School Board and approval by Senate be discontinued from the degree programme.
(g)    A Candidate who repeats the year externally shall be required to pay examination and   any other fees that the University may deem applicable. A candidate is required to attend classes in the failed courses and shall be required to pay the required tuition fees for the failed course units, examination fees, and any other necessary charges as may be determined by the University.
(h)    A repeating candidate who fails to attain the pass mark in any of the failed courses shall, on recommendation of the School Board and approval by Senate, be discontinued from the degree programme.
(i)    In any year, a candidate who fails to attain the pass mark in four course units or less may on recommendation of the School Board and approval by Senate be allowed to sit supplementary examinations in the failed courses within three months after official release of results.
      (j)  Supplementary examinations shall be marked out of 100% but the pass grade shall be recorded as 40%.
(k)    A candidate who fails to attain the pass mark in a supplementary examination shall on recommendation of the School Board and approval by Senate be allowed to do a second supplementary examination, ONCE ONLY as long as the total of such examinations does not exceed four in number during any one sitting for that particular year.
(l) A candidate who fails a supplementary on a second attempt according to regulation 5.3 (l) shall on recommendation of the School Board and approval by Senate be discontinued from the degree programme.
(m) No candidate shall be allowed to repeat any year of study more than once.
5.4. The degree of B.Sc. Forestry shall be:
(d)    Awarded to candidates who have completed and passed examinations in all courses of study including Field Practice/Attachment.
(e)    Based on the average score of all examinations of courses taken in the entire course duration.
(f)    Classified into First Class Honours, Second Class Honours (Upper or Lower) Division and Pass, provided that in order to qualify for the award of Honours Degree, a candidate shall not have repeated any of the years of study on academic grounds.
5.6    In arriving at the decision as to the degree classification for each candidate, the Faculty Board of Examiners shall have to pay regard to the overall marks obtained by the candidate and shall apply the principle that a mean score of:
70 - 100% - First Class Honours
60 - 69% - Second Class Honours (Upper Division)
50 - 59% - Second Class Honours (Lower Division)
40 - 49% - Pass.

6 STUDY INTERMISSION
A student may intermit studies at any time, for good cause conveyed in writing to the Academic Registrar, and may resume later after duly notifying the Academic Registrar. During the entire period of intermission the student shall be required to keep his/her registration current by paying the prescribed registration charges.

PROGRAMME STRUCTURE

Bachelor of Science in Land Resources Management

Land is critical to the economic, social and cultural development of Kenya. The land issue has been a defining factor in Kenyan history. During the colonial period, land was one of the key reasons for the struggle for independence. Moreover, land issues have remained critical, politically sensitive and culturally complex in post-independent Kenya. Land administration and management systems inherited from the colonial masters lacked stable legal framework upon which historical land issues could be solved. Until recently, post-independent Kenya lacked a clearly defined or codified national land policy. The problems posed by the lack of a policy have been exacerbated by the existence of many land laws, some of which are inconsistent and incompatible. The result of this has been a very complex land administration system that has been unable to form a platform upon which to solve historical land injustices and current land problems in the country.

The process of formulating a comprehensive national land policy commenced in February 2004. In April 2007, a draft National Land Policy was adopted by stakeholders through a national symposium. This culminated with the Sessional Paper No. 3 of 2009 on National Land Policy. The policy formulation entailed a consultative and bottom up approaches, and thus provides a stable legal framework for land administration. Implementation of this policy will bring the critically required land reforms in the country.Kenya Vision 2030, stresses on the need for land reforms as a key to the realization of the three pillars of economic, social and political stability.
Furthermore, a new constitution that addresses many of the challenging land issues in the country is being implemented. The new constitution gives the legal direction on how the land policy will be implemented. Thus, for the first time in its history, Kenya has put in place the requisite policy and legal framework that addresses both the inherent historical injustices as well as the recent challenges of land administration and management. 


1.1 Justification
The National Land Policy will not, on its own, bring about the envisaged land reforms. The implementation process will not only require goodwill and commitment from stakeholders, but also a large pool of professionals trained in land administration, conservation and management. Further, the Kenya Vision 2030 has adopted land reform macro-economic stability as cross-cutting foundations of national transformation, among others like ICT, security and rule of law. As such, equipping current and future land managers with a B.Sc. in Land Resources Management is a milestone in the provision of the critically required human resource in the land policy implementation and achievement of land reform macro-economic stability as envisaged in the Vision 2030. The objective of the programme
is to equip students with scientific knowledge and skills required to tackle technical issues in themanagement of land resources. The degree programme will offer a rigorous science-based curriculum that will adequately focus on sustainable management of land resources. In line with National Land Policy, the management of state, private, trust and community lands will be adequately addressed by the programme.
The B.Sc. In Land Resources Management programme will prepare candidates who can pursue postgraduate studies in a variety of specializations. The candidates will also be quite competitive tooccupy job opportunities in various national GovernmentMinistries and specialized Agencies such as the National Land Commission, Soil Survey of Kenya, Department of Resource Surveys and Remote Sensing (DRSRS), National Environment Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), Kenya Forest Service (KFS) and Water Resources Management Authority (WARMA). The graduates will also get many job opportunities in the newly created County Governments and Local Authorities. Alternatively, they can be employed in Inter-Governmental Organizations and the United Nations agencies such as United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), UN Habitat, United Nations Food and Agricultural Programme (UNFAO) and World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF).
The graduates will also be absorbed into the myriad local Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Community- Based Organizations (CBOs) operating in the Eastern African region. The graduates can also take up research work in research institutions such as the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), Kenya Forestry Research Institution (KEFRI), National Museums of Kenya (NMK), African Association of Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Institute/Centre for International Agriculture and Technology (TSBF-CIAT). They can also take up teaching jobs in the universities and colleges offering land resources managementprogrammes. Finally, the graduates can also work as self-employed consultants or in private consulting firms in Rural and Urban Land Planning, Surveying and Environmental Impact Assessment of Projects.

2.0 PROGRAMME OBJECTIVES
d)    To train and prepare students in the art and science of multiple-land use management.
e)    To train and prepare candidates as land administrators and managers who can facilitate in theimplementation of the National Land Policy.
f)    To provide knowledge and skills to graduates to enable them to be marketable in the various public and private sectors, or be self-employed, in land resources conservation and management, including research.
g)    To empower graduates to champion leadership in land resources management for sustainable development.
h)    To develop among candidates an understanding and appreciation of the multiple values of land resources for environmentally-friendly development.

3.0 ENTRY REQUIREMENTS
3.1 K.C.S.E Candidates
In addition to satisfying the minimum University entrance requirements, the candidates must have a minimum of a C+ in Biology or Biological sciences and a minimum of a C (plain) in Chemistry and in either Mathematics, Geography, Physics or Physical sciences.
The candidates who satisfy the minimum University entry requirements but have a C- (minus) in Biology or in Biological Sciences shall be eligible for admission after taking and passing bridging courses in these subjects offered by the South Eastern Kenya Universityor any other institution recognized by Senate.

3.2    Other candidates
Admission to the degree course may also be granted to the following candidates:
(i)    Holders of K.A.C.E or equivalent with minimum 2 principals passes, one in Geography and the other in either Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Economics or Mathematics.
(j)    Holders of Diploma in Environmental Science or related equivalent from an institution recognized by Senate and with minimum passes of credit; or candidates with a pass with two years or more relevant working experience.
(k)    Holders of a Higher National Diploma or equivalent in Environmental Science or Biological Sciences and other related field from an institution recognized by Senate.
(l)    Holders of a degree in Biological Sciences or related fields from a University recognized by Senate.

4.0 TRANSFER OF CREDITS AND EXEMPTIONS
4.1. Credit Transfer
Candidates from other universities recognized by the South Eastern Kenya University Senate will be considered for credit transfer based on course unit content relevance and equivalence. The transfer of credits shall not be more than a third (1/3) of the total prescribed credits and/or course units required for the award of B.Sc. Land Resources Management.

4.2. Exemptions
Senate may exempt candidates from some courses on recommendation of the School Board provided that:
(j)    Such candidates had taken those courses in a recognized University or equivalent institution and had achieved a pass grade.
(k)    Candidates seeking such exemptions submit a duly completed Senate approved form specifying the courses for which exemption is desired and attach evidence of 3.2 (a) above, showing contents of what was studied.
(l)    Courses specified in 3.2 (b) are to satisfy the requirements of the first year of study only. Candidates requiring exemptions from 2nd, 3rd and 4th year courses shall in the absence of credit transfer be required to sit University examination and attain at least a pass grade, which will then be used in the degree classification.
(m)    Course units recommended for exemption should not exceed 1/3 of the total units in the degree programme.
(n)    A non-refundable course exemption fee as determined by the South Eastern Kenya University will be paid with each application for exemption.

5.0GENERAL REGULATIONS
5.1 The general regulations of the University and School of Environment and Natural Resources Management shall apply.

6.0 COURSE STRUCTURE AND DURATION
The programme will be offered under two modules, full time (module I) and through Open Distance Learning (ODL) (Module III) for students who cannot attend regular university programme.

10.    Full time
6.1    The teaching period for the degree programme shall extend over a period of not less than four academic years. Each academic year shall consist of two semesters of 15 teaching weeks and two (2) weeks for examination.
6.2    A candidate enrolled for the degree shall satisfactorily complete the programme in a period of not more than twice the minimum period for which he/she was registered for the degree
6.3    A candidate shall participate and complete course work and practical assignments  
as prescribed. Admission to the examination at the end of the semester shall be based on satisfactory completion of such requirements.
6.4    Each student shall be required to undertake satisfactory field attachment of eight (8) weeks as stipulated in the Course structure. During the field practice, students are expected to embark on a research project, which they have to complete and present at a seminar during the fourth year of study.

11.    Open Distance Learning
The delivery mode of these programmes will be use of open and distance education learning modes involving the use of various media (multi-media modes of learning) and largely home based.

7.0 EXAMINATION REGULATIONS
The conduct of examinations shall be governed by the following regulations:
7.1    No candidate shall be permitted to sit an examination unless he/she has satisfactorily attended two thirds of the prescribed course of study.
7.2    For purposes of these regulations, field practice (Attachment) shall be deemed to be part of the fourth year.
7.3    All examination procedures shall be governed by the following:
 (a) Each course examination shall be examined out of a total of 100%.
(b) The pass mark in each course examination shall be 40% and graded as follows:-

70        -    100%         =    A
60        -    69%        =    B
50        -    59%        =    C
40        -    49%        =    D
39% and below            =    FAIL
(c) Written examination in each course shall be by a 1 x 2 hour paper and shall constitute 70%. The Continuous Assessment Tests (CATs) shall constitute the remaining 30% which shall be divided as follows: - written CATs /term papers 20% and practical /field trip reports 10%.
(d) Field Practice/Attachment shall be examined by oral examination and written reports. The grades shall be used in the degree classification. Evaluation of the students’ performance while in the field shall constitute field assessment 30%, written reports 40% and oral presentations 30%.
(e)     The Special Projects and Seminars shall be examined through written reports and presentations, and shall be graded to use in the degree classification. The seminars and project proposal shall constitute 30%, the special project report shall constitute 60% and the oral presentation shall constitute 10%.
(j)    A candidate who fails to attain the pass mark in five or six course units taken in any academic year shall be required to repeat the academic year of study. Candidates who repeat the year shall sit examinations in failed courses only. Candidates shall have the option to repeat the year externally, whereby they sit CATs and final examination in the failed courses without attending classes.
(k)    A candidate who fails to attain the pass mark in seven or more of the course units taken in any year shall on recommendation of the School Board and approval by Senate be discontinued from the degree programme.
(h) A Candidate who repeats the year externally shall be required to pay examination and   any other fees that the University may deem applicable. A candidate who opts to attend classes in the failed courses shall be required to pay the required tuition fees for the failed course units, examination fees, and any other necessary charges as may be determined by the University.
 (i)     A repeating candidate who fails to attain the pass mark in any of the failed courses shall, on recommendation of the School Board and approval by Senate, be discontinued from the degree programme.
(j)     In any year, a candidate who fails to attain the pass mark in four course units or less may on recommendation of the School Board and approval by Senate be allowed to sit supplementary examinations in the failed courses within three months after official release of results.
      (k)  Supplementary examinations shall be marked out of 100% but the pass grade shall be recorded as 40%.

8.0 AWARD OF DEGREES
8.1 The final degree of B.Sc. Land Resources Management shall be:
(g)    Awarded to candidates who have completed and passed examinations in all courses of study including Field Practice/Attachment.
(h)    Based on the average score of all examinations of courses taken in the entire course duration.
(i)    Classified into First Class Honours, Second Class Honours (Upper or Lower) Division and Pass, provided that in order to qualify for the award of Honours Degree, a candidate shall not have repeated any of the years of study on academic grounds.
8.2    In arriving at the decision as to the degree classification for each candidate, the School Board of Examiners shall have to pay regard to the overall marks obtained by the candidate and shall apply the principle that a mean score of:
70 - 100% - First Class Honours
60 - 69% - Second Class Honours (Upper Division)
50 - 59% - Second Class Honours (Lower Division)
40 - 49% - Pass.

9.0 STUDY INTERMISSION
A student may intermit studies at any time, for good cause conveyed in writing to the Academic Registrar, and may resume later after duly notifying the Academic Registrar. During the entire period of intermission the student shall be required to keep his/her registration current by paying the prescribed registration charges.

PROGRAMME STRUCTURE

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (PHD) IN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

Title:Regulations and Syllabus for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Environmental Management

2. Introduction
Environmental management involves the management of all components of the bio-physical environment, both living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic). This is due to the interconnection and network of relationships amongst all living species and their habitats. The environment also involves the relationships of the human environment, such as the social, cultural and economic environment with the bio-physical environment. The programme of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Environmental Management seeks to strengthen the knowledge base of Environment Management scholars, enabling them to undertake critical analysis of important environmental management issues, to conduct and co-ordinate multi/inter-disciplinary research, and to disseminate information and data for sustainable use of natural resources. The knowledge gained by those specializing in Environmental Management will enable adequate analysis, modeling, prediction and monitoring of environmental degradation leading to effective mitigation measures, rehabilitation and restoration of the environment.

2.1     Justification
Environmental challenges have been areas of priority and focus in the 21st century worldwide. Prudent management of the environment will address these challenges faced by humanity and other living organisms on planet earth. This can only be achieved through relevant training and research on environmental management. Many institutions have been in the forefront in the development of environment-related undergraduate and post-graduate programs. This PhD program is purposely tailored to absorb candidates with Masters degrees in the many environment-related programs with the aim of producing well trained and all round environmental managers and researchers. The school of Environment and Natural Resources Management, also, has undergraduate students undertaking BSc. in Environmental management as well as MSc. in the same. As such, this program will provide a smooth transition from masters to doctoral level with the aim of thoroughly training and mentoring highly qualified environmental managers and researchers.

2.2    Objectives of the programme
The programme aims at:
a)    Producing specialists in field of Environmental Management who will provide innovative ideas and solutions to our existing and emerging problems and guide policy development and implementation.
b)    Providing training designed to gradually and systematically build and strengthen the individual’s capacities to conduct research on environmental management issues.
c)    Developing the highest level of scholarship, research capability, and creative thinking skills in the student’s specific area of research interest.
3.0 Admission Requirements
a) The general regulations for PhD programmes of South Eastern Kenya University shall apply.
b) The common regulations for PhD degrees in the School of Environment and Natural Resources Management shall apply.
c) To qualify for admission into the Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Management programme, a candidate shall be a holder of: 
(i) Masters degree of SouthEasternKenyaUniversity or its equivalent from a University recognized by SEKU Senate in Environmental Management, Environmental Studies/Sciences, Natural Resources Management, and in any relevant related areas;
(ii) Masters degree in relevant social sciences and engineering recommended by the School Board and approved by SEKU Senate.

4. Course Structure and Duration
The degree shall normally take a minimum of three years and a maximum of six years. Registration status will be reviewed from time to time by the Board of Postgraduate Studies and will be based on progress reports. Continuance of registration will depend on evidence of satisfactory progressive progress at the end of every six months from the date of admission.
a)    The doctoral programme shall normally consist of research proposal development, fieldwork and thesis.
b)    The student must submit to the Director, Board of Postgraduate Studies a draft research proposal within six months of the first academic year after registration.

5. Examination Regulations
The examination rules and regulations for postgraduate studies of SouthEasternKenyaUniversity’s Postgraduate Studies shall apply.

6. Award of Degree
A candidate who successfully completes the course shall be awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) in Environmental Management of the South Eastern Kenya University.

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