Bachelor of Science in Land Resource Management

Land is critical to the economic, social and cultural development of Kenya. The land issue has been a defining factor in Kenyan history. During the colonial period, land was one of the key reasons for the struggle for independence. Moreover, land issues have remained critical, politically sensitive and culturally complex in post-independent Kenya. Land administration and management systems inherited from the colonial masters lacked stable legal framework upon which historical land issues could be solved. Until recently, post-independent Kenya lacked a clearly defined or codified national land policy. The problems posed by the lack of a policy have been exacerbated by the existence of many land laws, some of which are inconsistent and incompatible. The result of this has been a very complex land administration system that has been unable to form a platform upon which to solve historical land injustices and current land problems in the country.

The process of formulating a comprehensive national land policy commenced in February 2004. In April 2007, a draft National Land Policy was adopted by stakeholders through a national symposium. This culminated with the Sessional Paper No. 3 of 2009 on National Land Policy. The policy formulation entailed a consultative and bottom up approaches, and thus provides a stable legal framework for land administration. Implementation of this policy will bring the critically required land reforms in the country.Kenya Vision 2030, stresses on the need for land reforms as a key to the realization of the three pillars of economic, social and political stability.
Furthermore, a new constitution that addresses many of the challenging land issues in the country is being implemented. The new constitution gives the legal direction on how the land policy will be implemented. Thus, for the first time in its history, Kenya has put in place the requisite policy and legal framework that addresses both the inherent historical injustices as well as the recent challenges of land administration and management. 


1.1 Justification
The National Land Policy will not, on its own, bring about the envisaged land reforms. The implementation process will not only require goodwill and commitment from stakeholders, but also a large pool of professionals trained in land administration, conservation and management. Further, the Kenya Vision 2030 has adopted land reform macro-economic stability as cross-cutting foundations of national transformation, among others like ICT, security and rule of law. As such, equipping current and future land managers with a B.Sc. in Land Resources Management is a milestone in the provision of the critically required human resource in the land policy implementation and achievement of land reform macro-economic stability as envisaged in the Vision 2030. The objective of the programme
is to equip students with scientific knowledge and skills required to tackle technical issues in themanagement of land resources. The degree programme will offer a rigorous science-based curriculum that will adequately focus on sustainable management of land resources. In line with National Land Policy, the management of state, private, trust and community lands will be adequately addressed by the programme.
The B.Sc. In Land Resources Management programme will prepare candidates who can pursue postgraduate studies in a variety of specializations. The candidates will also be quite competitive tooccupy job opportunities in various national GovernmentMinistries and specialized Agencies such as the National Land Commission, Soil Survey of Kenya, Department of Resource Surveys and Remote Sensing (DRSRS), National Environment Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), Kenya Forest Service (KFS) and Water Resources Management Authority (WARMA). The graduates will also get many job opportunities in the newly created County Governments and Local Authorities. Alternatively, they can be employed in Inter-Governmental Organizations and the United Nations agencies such as United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), UN Habitat, United Nations Food and Agricultural Programme (UNFAO) and World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF).
The graduates will also be absorbed into the myriad local Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Community- Based Organizations (CBOs) operating in the Eastern African region. The graduates can also take up research work in research institutions such as the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), Kenya Forestry Research Institution (KEFRI), National Museums of Kenya (NMK), African Association of Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Institute/Centre for International Agriculture and Technology (TSBF-CIAT). They can also take up teaching jobs in the universities and colleges offering land resources managementprogrammes. Finally, the graduates can also work as self-employed consultants or in private consulting firms in Rural and Urban Land Planning, Surveying and Environmental Impact Assessment of Projects.

2.0 PROGRAMME OBJECTIVES
d)    To train and prepare students in the art and science of multiple-land use management.
e)    To train and prepare candidates as land administrators and managers who can facilitate in theimplementation of the National Land Policy.
f)    To provide knowledge and skills to graduates to enable them to be marketable in the various public and private sectors, or be self-employed, in land resources conservation and management, including research.
g)    To empower graduates to champion leadership in land resources management for sustainable development.
h)    To develop among candidates an understanding and appreciation of the multiple values of land resources for environmentally-friendly development.

3.0 ENTRY REQUIREMENTS
3.1 K.C.S.E Candidates
In addition to satisfying the minimum University entrance requirements, the candidates must have a minimum of a C+ in Biology or Biological sciences and a minimum of a C (plain) in Chemistry and in either Mathematics, Geography, Physics or Physical sciences.
The candidates who satisfy the minimum University entry requirements but have a C- (minus) in Biology or in Biological Sciences shall be eligible for admission after taking and passing bridging courses in these subjects offered by the South Eastern Kenya Universityor any other institution recognized by Senate.

3.2    Other candidates
Admission to the degree course may also be granted to the following candidates:
(i)    Holders of K.A.C.E or equivalent with minimum 2 principals passes, one in Geography and the other in either Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Economics or Mathematics.
(j)    Holders of Diploma in Environmental Science or related equivalent from an institution recognized by Senate and with minimum passes of credit; or candidates with a pass with two years or more relevant working experience.
(k)    Holders of a Higher National Diploma or equivalent in Environmental Science or Biological Sciences and other related field from an institution recognized by Senate.
(l)    Holders of a degree in Biological Sciences or related fields from a University recognized by Senate.

4.0 TRANSFER OF CREDITS AND EXEMPTIONS
4.1. Credit Transfer
Candidates from other universities recognized by the South Eastern Kenya University Senate will be considered for credit transfer based on course unit content relevance and equivalence. The transfer of credits shall not be more than a third (1/3) of the total prescribed credits and/or course units required for the award of B.Sc. Land Resources Management.

4.2. Exemptions
Senate may exempt candidates from some courses on recommendation of the School Board provided that:
(j)    Such candidates had taken those courses in a recognized University or equivalent institution and had achieved a pass grade.
(k)    Candidates seeking such exemptions submit a duly completed Senate approved form specifying the courses for which exemption is desired and attach evidence of 3.2 (a) above, showing contents of what was studied.
(l)    Courses specified in 3.2 (b) are to satisfy the requirements of the first year of study only. Candidates requiring exemptions from 2nd, 3rd and 4th year courses shall in the absence of credit transfer be required to sit University examination and attain at least a pass grade, which will then be used in the degree classification.
(m)    Course units recommended for exemption should not exceed 1/3 of the total units in the degree programme.
(n)    A non-refundable course exemption fee as determined by the South Eastern Kenya University will be paid with each application for exemption.

5.0GENERAL REGULATIONS
5.1 The general regulations of the University and School of Environment and Natural Resources Management shall apply.

6.0 COURSE STRUCTURE AND DURATION
The programme will be offered under two modules, full time (module I) and through Open Distance Learning (ODL) (Module III) for students who cannot attend regular university programme.

10.    Full time
6.1    The teaching period for the degree programme shall extend over a period of not less than four academic years. Each academic year shall consist of two semesters of 15 teaching weeks and two (2) weeks for examination.
6.2    A candidate enrolled for the degree shall satisfactorily complete the programme in a period of not more than twice the minimum period for which he/she was registered for the degree
6.3    A candidate shall participate and complete course work and practical assignments  
as prescribed. Admission to the examination at the end of the semester shall be based on satisfactory completion of such requirements.
6.4    Each student shall be required to undertake satisfactory field attachment of eight (8) weeks as stipulated in the Course structure. During the field practice, students are expected to embark on a research project, which they have to complete and present at a seminar during the fourth year of study.

11.    Open Distance Learning
The delivery mode of these programmes will be use of open and distance education learning modes involving the use of various media (multi-media modes of learning) and largely home based.

7.0 EXAMINATION REGULATIONS
The conduct of examinations shall be governed by the following regulations:
7.1    No candidate shall be permitted to sit an examination unless he/she has satisfactorily attended two thirds of the prescribed course of study.
7.2    For purposes of these regulations, field practice (Attachment) shall be deemed to be part of the fourth year.
7.3    All examination procedures shall be governed by the following:
 (a) Each course examination shall be examined out of a total of 100%.
(b) The pass mark in each course examination shall be 40% and graded as follows:-

70        -    100%         =    A
60        -    69%        =    B
50        -    59%        =    C
40        -    49%        =    D
39% and below            =    FAIL
(c) Written examination in each course shall be by a 1 x 2 hour paper and shall constitute 70%. The Continuous Assessment Tests (CATs) shall constitute the remaining 30% which shall be divided as follows: - written CATs /term papers 20% and practical /field trip reports 10%.
(d) Field Practice/Attachment shall be examined by oral examination and written reports. The grades shall be used in the degree classification. Evaluation of the students’ performance while in the field shall constitute field assessment 30%, written reports 40% and oral presentations 30%.
(e)     The Special Projects and Seminars shall be examined through written reports and presentations, and shall be graded to use in the degree classification. The seminars and project proposal shall constitute 30%, the special project report shall constitute 60% and the oral presentation shall constitute 10%.
(j)    A candidate who fails to attain the pass mark in five or six course units taken in any academic year shall be required to repeat the academic year of study. Candidates who repeat the year shall sit examinations in failed courses only. Candidates shall have the option to repeat the year externally, whereby they sit CATs and final examination in the failed courses without attending classes.
(k)    A candidate who fails to attain the pass mark in seven or more of the course units taken in any year shall on recommendation of the School Board and approval by Senate be discontinued from the degree programme.
(h) A Candidate who repeats the year externally shall be required to pay examination and   any other fees that the University may deem applicable. A candidate who opts to attend classes in the failed courses shall be required to pay the required tuition fees for the failed course units, examination fees, and any other necessary charges as may be determined by the University.
 (i)     A repeating candidate who fails to attain the pass mark in any of the failed courses shall, on recommendation of the School Board and approval by Senate, be discontinued from the degree programme.
(j)     In any year, a candidate who fails to attain the pass mark in four course units or less may on recommendation of the School Board and approval by Senate be allowed to sit supplementary examinations in the failed courses within three months after official release of results.
      (k)  Supplementary examinations shall be marked out of 100% but the pass grade shall be recorded as 40%.

8.0 AWARD OF DEGREES
8.1 The final degree of B.Sc. Land Resources Management shall be:
(g)    Awarded to candidates who have completed and passed examinations in all courses of study including Field Practice/Attachment.
(h)    Based on the average score of all examinations of courses taken in the entire course duration.
(i)    Classified into First Class Honours, Second Class Honours (Upper or Lower) Division and Pass, provided that in order to qualify for the award of Honours Degree, a candidate shall not have repeated any of the years of study on academic grounds.
8.2    In arriving at the decision as to the degree classification for each candidate, the School Board of Examiners shall have to pay regard to the overall marks obtained by the candidate and shall apply the principle that a mean score of:
70 - 100% - First Class Honours
60 - 69% - Second Class Honours (Upper Division)
50 - 59% - Second Class Honours (Lower Division)
40 - 49% - Pass.

9.0 STUDY INTERMISSION
A student may intermit studies at any time, for good cause conveyed in writing to the Academic Registrar, and may resume later after duly notifying the Academic Registrar. During the entire period of intermission the student shall be required to keep his/her registration current by paying the prescribed registration charges.

PROGRAMME STRUCTURE

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